Contagious Porcine Pleuropneumonia

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Caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

  • Clinical signs and epidemiology:
    • Acute disease in susceptible herds with high morbidity and mortality (up to 50%)
    • In acute outbreaks, pigs may be dyspnoeic, pyrexic or anorexic
    • Blood-stained froth surrounding nose and mouth
    • Cyanosis
    • Pregnant sows abort
    • Causes pneumonia in pigs
    • Carrier herds have some immunity, protecting from acute disease, where lesions are often subclinical, and deaths sporadic
    • Lung scarring and pleural adhesions in many recovered animals
    • Solid immunity develops in recovered animals to all serotypes
    • The disease is spread between herds by carrier pigs
  • Diagnosis:
    • Haemorrhagic consolidation close to the main bronchi and fibrinous pleuritis may be suggestive
    • Specimens are cultured on chocolate agar and blood agar in 5-10% carbon dioxide for 2-3 days
    • Small colonies surrounded by clear haemolysis
    • No growth on MacConkey agar
    • Positive CAMP reaction with Staphylococcus aureus
    • Most strains are NAD-dependent (grow on Heated Blood agar)
    • Immunofluorescent- or PCR-based techniques
    • The bacteria on the palatine tonsil may remain undetected by serological tests and swabbing, and can therefore cause an outbreak in naive pigs
  • Treatment:
    • Antibiotics depending on the strain of bacteria
    • Prophylactic antibiotics for in-contact pigs
  • Control:
    • Killed and polyvalent bacterin vaccines as well as a subunit vaccine are available
    • Improve ventilation, avoid chilling and overcrowding