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  • Histoplasma capsulatum
  • Non-contageous, systemic mycosis
  • Commonly pulmonary infections occur
    • Other organs can be involved
    • Involves the reticuloendothelial system
    • Intestinal form can also occur
  • Acute and chronic disease can occur
  • Endemic to the USA
    • Isolated cases have been reported in Europe
  • Respiratory infection
    • Infection via ingestion can also occur
  • Affects dogs, cats, cattle, horses and humans
  • Found in soil contaminated by bird droppings, decaying vegetation and in caves inhabited by bats
  • Fine, branching, septate hyphae with smooth-walled pyriform to spherical microconidia and large, thick-walled tuberculate macroconidia on simple conidiophores
  • Dimorphic fungi
  • Hard to demonstrate in smears as the organisms is very small
    • Stain with Giemsa or Wright and examine under oil immersion lens
  • Present intracellularly in macrophages as oval yeast cells with few buds
    • Clear halo is seen around the darker staining central material
  • Grows on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar
    • Creamy white colonies, turning tan coloured and then brown
  • Also grows on Blood agar
    • Small, white yeast-like colonies
  • Test using immunodiffusion, complement fixation and counterimmunoelectrophoresis
    • Skin test of little value as it only indicates exposure
  • The prognosis is poor in acute and disseminated cases

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