Difference between revisions of "Japanese Encephalitis Virus"

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(Clinical Signs)
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[[File:JEV Litter.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Litter from a JEV infected sow showing two mummified piglets. Copyright CFSPH Iowa State]]
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Also Known As: '''''JE — Japanese B Encephalitis — Hydrancephaly — JEV — JE Virus'''''
  
 
Also Known As – '''''JE – Japanese B Encephalitis - Hydrancephaly'''''
 
 
Caused By – ''Japanese Encephalitis Virus – JEV – Japanese B Encephalitis Virus – JE Virus''
 
 
==Introduction==
 
==Introduction==
Japanese Encephalitis is caused by a '''[[Culicidae | mosquitoe-borne]] [[Flaviviridae | flavivirus]]''' and affects a wide range of species including ruminants, carnivores, birds and humans.
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[[File:JEV Litter.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Litter from a JEV infected sow showing two mummified piglets. Copyright CFSPH Iowa State]]
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Japanese Encephalitis is caused by a '''[[Culicidae|mosquitoe-borne]] [[Flaviviridae|flavivirus]]''' and affects a wide range of species including ruminants, carnivores, birds and humans.
  
 
It is best known for causing reproductive failure in sows and central nervous system disease in horses.  
 
It is best known for causing reproductive failure in sows and central nervous system disease in horses.  
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==Distribution==
 
==Distribution==
JE has a number of '''insect vectors''', mainly '''[[Culicidae | mosquitoes]]'''.
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JE has a number of '''insect vectors''', mainly '''[[Culicidae|mosquitoes]]'''. Distribution is restricted to '''South-East Asia'''.
 
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Distribution is restricted to '''South-East Asia'''.
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'''Birds''', particularly '''herons''', are '''maintenance hosts''' for JEV while '''pigs''' are '''amplifier hosts.'''
 
'''Birds''', particularly '''herons''', are '''maintenance hosts''' for JEV while '''pigs''' are '''amplifier hosts.'''
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==Clinical Signs==
 
==Clinical Signs==
Key reproductive signs include '''Abortion in pregnant sows''', stillbirths, male '''infertility''', lack of libido, small litter sizes and '''heat on palpation''' of the testes and scrotum.
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Key reproductive signs include '''abortion in pregnant sows''', stillbirths, male '''infertility''', lack of libido, small litter sizes and '''heat on palpation''' of the testes and scrotum.
  
 
'''Neurological''' disease in '''horses''' features trembling, ataxia, incoordination, opisthotonus, hypermetria, aggression and blindness.
 
'''Neurological''' disease in '''horses''' features trembling, ataxia, incoordination, opisthotonus, hypermetria, aggression and blindness.
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==Diagnosis==
 
==Diagnosis==
'''Antibody titres''' can be detected serologically by Haemagglutination inhibition, '''[[ELISA testing | ELISA]]''', serum neutralisation and other methods. They can also be detected in foetuses.
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'''Antibody titres''' can be detected serologically by [[Agglutination|haemagglutination inhibition]], '''[[ELISA testing|ELISA]]''', serum neutralisation and other methods. Antibodies can also be detected in foetuses.
  
'''Viral antigen''' can be demonstrated in '''brain, placenta and foetuses''' by Indirect Fluorescent Staining '''(IFAT)''' and Avidin-biotin staining.
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'''Viral antigen''' can be demonstrated in '''brain, placenta and foetuses''' by [[FAT|indirect fluorescent staining '''(IFAT)''']] and avidin-biotin staining.
  
On post-mortem of piglets from infected dams, '''hydrocephalus, hydrothorax''', subcutaneous oedema and necrotic foci within the organs are common. The meninges and spinal cord may be congested and cerebellar hypomyelinogenesis has been described. <ref> Morimoto, T. (1969) Epizootic swine stillbirth caused by Japanese encephalitis virus. Proc symposium on factors producing embryonic and fetal abnormalities, death, and abortion in swine. US ARS, 91-73:137-153</ref>
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On '''post-mortem '''of piglets from infected dams, '''hydrocephalus, hydrothorax''', subcutaneous oedema and necrotic foci within the organs are common. The meninges and spinal cord may be congested and cerebellar hypomyelinogenesis has been described. <ref> Morimoto, T. (1969) '''Epizootic swine stillbirth caused by Japanese encephalitis virus. '''Proc symposium on factors producing embryonic and fetal abnormalities, death, and abortion in swine. ''US ARS'', 91-73:137-153</ref>
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In male infected pigs, large amounts of '''mucoid fluid''' are present within the [[Testes and Epididymis - Anatomy & Physiology |'''tunica vaginalis''']] and the epididymis and tunic are '''fibrosed'''.
  
In male infected pigs, large amounts of '''mucoid fluid''' are present within the [[Testes and Epididymis - Anatomy & Physiology | '''tunica vaginalis''']] and the epididymis and tunic are '''fibrosed'''.
 
 
==Treatment==
 
==Treatment==
 
'''No treatment''' is available in animals.
 
'''No treatment''' is available in animals.
  
 
Human recombinant interferon has been used in human cases of JEV.
 
Human recombinant interferon has been used in human cases of JEV.
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==Control==
 
==Control==
 
'''Live attenuated vaccines''' are available against JEV.  
 
'''Live attenuated vaccines''' are available against JEV.  
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Fly control is valuable but impractical.
 
Fly control is valuable but impractical.
  
{{Learning
 
|literature search = [http://www.cabdirect.org/search.html?q=title%3A+%28Japanese+Encephalitis+Virus%29/ Japanese Encephalitis Pulications]
 
  
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{{Learning
 
|flashcards = [[Japanese Encephalitis Flashcards]]
 
|flashcards = [[Japanese Encephalitis Flashcards]]
 
}}
 
}}
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==References==
 
==References==
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Animal Health & ProductIon Compendium, '''Japanese encephalitis datasheet''', accessed 06/06/2011 @ http://www.cabi.org/ahpc/
 
Animal Health & ProductIon Compendium, '''Japanese encephalitis datasheet''', accessed 06/06/2011 @ http://www.cabi.org/ahpc/
  
[[Category:To Do - CABI review]]
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{{review}}
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[[Category:Flaviviridae]]
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[[Category:Zoonoses]]
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[[Category:Pig Viruses]][[Category:Horse Viruses]]
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[[Category:Reproductive Diseases - Pig]][[Category:Neurological Diseases - Horse]]
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[[Category:CABI Expert Review]]

Revision as of 22:43, 19 June 2011

Also Known As: JE — Japanese B Encephalitis — Hydrancephaly — JEV — JE Virus

Introduction

Litter from a JEV infected sow showing two mummified piglets. Copyright CFSPH Iowa State

Japanese Encephalitis is caused by a mosquitoe-borne flavivirus and affects a wide range of species including ruminants, carnivores, birds and humans.

It is best known for causing reproductive failure in sows and central nervous system disease in horses.

This disease is notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

JE is zoonotic, epidemics having been recorded in Japan, Korea and India during the mosquito season. Although disease is usually mild or subclinical, fatal encephalitis can develop in children.

Distribution

JE has a number of insect vectors, mainly mosquitoes. Distribution is restricted to South-East Asia.

Birds, particularly herons, are maintenance hosts for JEV while pigs are amplifier hosts.

Clinical Signs

Key reproductive signs include abortion in pregnant sows, stillbirths, male infertility, lack of libido, small litter sizes and heat on palpation of the testes and scrotum.

Neurological disease in horses features trembling, ataxia, incoordination, opisthotonus, hypermetria, aggression and blindness.

Anorexia, inappetance and ill thrift often accompany other signs.

Infection is usually subclinical in other species.

Diagnosis

Antibody titres can be detected serologically by haemagglutination inhibition, ELISA, serum neutralisation and other methods. Antibodies can also be detected in foetuses.

Viral antigen can be demonstrated in brain, placenta and foetuses by indirect fluorescent staining (IFAT) and avidin-biotin staining.

On post-mortem of piglets from infected dams, hydrocephalus, hydrothorax, subcutaneous oedema and necrotic foci within the organs are common. The meninges and spinal cord may be congested and cerebellar hypomyelinogenesis has been described. [1]

In male infected pigs, large amounts of mucoid fluid are present within the tunica vaginalis and the epididymis and tunic are fibrosed.

Treatment

No treatment is available in animals.

Human recombinant interferon has been used in human cases of JEV.

Control

Live attenuated vaccines are available against JEV.

Fly control is valuable but impractical.



Japanese Encephalitis Virus Learning Resources
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Flashcards
Test your knowledge using flashcard type questions
Japanese Encephalitis Flashcards



References

  1. Morimoto, T. (1969) Epizootic swine stillbirth caused by Japanese encephalitis virus. Proc symposium on factors producing embryonic and fetal abnormalities, death, and abortion in swine. US ARS, 91-73:137-153

Animal Health & Production Compendium, Japanese encephalitis virus datasheet, accessed 06/06/2011 @ http://www.cabi.org/ahpc/

Animal Health & ProductIon Compendium, Japanese encephalitis datasheet, accessed 06/06/2011 @ http://www.cabi.org/ahpc/