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Also Known As: BEV — Enteric Cytopathic Bovine Orphan Virus — ECBO
The enteroviruses multiply primarily in the gastrointestinal tract but also in the muscles and nervous tissue. There are 10 recognised serotypes within 2 serogroups.
Careful diagnosis is required due to serological and virological similarities with Foot and Mouth Disease.
BEV is not zoonotic.
Ubiquitous among cattle populations globally.
Serotype 1 has been found in cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, deer ad wild cattle.
Those viruses in serotype 2 have only been isolated from domestic cattle. All ages and breeds are susceptible.
Transmission is faecal:oral and airborne and the virus is highly resistant to environmental challenges.
Reproductive disease is the most common clinical presentation manifesting as abortion, stillbirths, infertility and neonatal deaths.
Diarrhoea with mucus and dark colour may also be seen as well as pyrexia, dehydration and weight loss. Dairy cows will show 60-70% reduction in milk yield. Respiratory signs may include mucoid nasal discharge.
Infected cattle disseminate the virus continually through their faeces and nasal discharge and this can continue for more than three months after apparent recovery.
No clinical signs are pathognomic.
Diagnosis partially relies upon ruling out other possible causes of the clinical signs.
BEV can be isolated from faeces, oesophageal scrapings, vaginal mucosa, rectal swabs, semen, blood, placenta, foetal materials and fluids, lungs, salivary glands, small intestine, lymph nodes, nasal swabs and other organs.
Serum neutralisation can detect antibodies to BEV.
No specific treatment is available. Symptomatic treatment may improve recovery and demeanour.
Isolation and adequate disinfection are important in containing outbreaks. No vaccine is available.
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