Alveolar periostitis is not common in the dog. It is usually caused when infection and inflammatory mediators spread from the pulp and consequently produce a periostitis. This spread of infection and inflammation may then go on to affect the surrounding bone and cause osteomyelitis. The condition is sometimes seen when infection of a dog's carnassial teeth results in a chronic sinus discharging below the eye, this is a so called 'malar' abscess.
The only available treatment for the resolution of alveolar periostitis is the removal of the affected tooth. It is especially hard to evaluate when present in the mandible and may produce a fistula which also requires the tooth to be extracted.