Bladder Neoplasia

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Neoplasia of the bladder is most commmon in dogs, cats and cattle.

Benign tumours


  • Occur in the smooth muscle of the bladder wall.
  • May be single or multiple, well defined white nodular projections.
  • If situated at the neck of the bladder, they can disrupt urinary flow.


  • Bladder papillomas are uncommon.
  • Will often recur following excision.
  • Can lead to carcinomas.

Botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma

  • Occurs in the bladder and less commonly the urethra of large breed dogs less than 18 months of age.
  • Embryonic myoblasts may be the origin.
  • Appears as a large fungating mass, usually at the trigone of the bladder.
  • Highly infiltrative and metastatic.

Bovine Enzootic Haematuria

Malignant tumours

Transitional cell carcinoma

  • Most relevant in dogs and cats.
  • Spreads along and through the bladder wall.
  • Destroys the epithelium and invades the muscle layers.
  • Metastasis to regional nodes and the lungs occurs in approximately 50% of cases.
    • Can also spread to the peritoneum or in a retrograde manner to the soft tissue and bone of the hindlimbs.

Bovine enzootic haematuria