Common Ingredients Used In Pet Food

From WikiVet English
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The ingredients declaration on pet food packaging varies according to legislation in place within a country. In Europe, ingredients can be grouped together under a category term. For example, many minerals can be included under the additives category rather than naming them individually, and ingredients sourced from animals can be included under the group term meat and animal derivatives (Table 1).

TABLE 1: Ingredient categories within Europe - defined by EU Commission Directive 98/67/EC
Term Definition Example Ingredients
Meat & animal derivatives All the fleshy parts of slaughtered warm-blooded land animals fresh or preserved by appropriate treatment and all products or derivatives of the processing of the carcass or parts of the carcase of warm-blooded land animals Pork, beef, lamb muscle meat, organs such as lung, heart, kidney, liver, chicken muscle meat, carcass, chicken necks, heads, feet, chicken meal, poultry by-product meal
Milk & milk derivatives All milk products fresh or preserved by appropriate treatment, and derivatives from the processing thereof Whole semi-skimmed or skimmed milk, milk solids, curds, whey, milk powder, casein, caseinate, milk protein, hydrolyzed milk protein, yoghurt
Eggs & egg derivatives All egg products fresh or preserved by appropriate treatment and derivatives from the processing thereof Whole egg, dried egg, frozen egg, egg yolk, egg white, albumin, egg powder, globulin
Oils & fats All animal and vegetable oils and fats Sunflower oil, pork fat
Yeasts Covers Brewers yeast, yeast cultures, nutritional yeast Brewers yeast
Fish & fish derivatives Fish or parts of fish, fresh or preserved by appropriate treatment, and derivatives from the processing thereof Fish heads, frames (bones and flesh scraps), tails, associated flesh, whole eviscerated fish or part fish
Cereals All types of cereal regardless of their presentation or products made from the starchy endosperm Wheat flour, whole maize, rice
Vegetables All types of vegetable and legumes, fresh or preserved by appropriate treatment Diced frozen carrots, whole frozen peas
Derivatives of vegetables origin Derivatives resulting from the treatment of vegetable products, in particular cereals, vegetables, legumes and oil seeds Sugar beet pulp, cellulose
Vegetable protein extracts All products of vegetable origin in which proteins have been concentrated by an adequate process to contain at least 50% crude protein, as related to the dry matter, and which may be restructured (textured) Wheat gluten or pea protein
Minerals All inorganic substances suitable for animal feed Calcium phosphate, zinc sulphate, magnesium oxide, iodine, sodium chloride, calcium carbonate, manganese sulphate
Various sugars All types of sugar Sucrose, fructose, glucose, honey
Additives Substances, micro-organisms or preparations, other than feed material and pre-mixtures, which are intentionally added in order to perform a particular functions; Additives covers vitamins, flavours, preservatives, antioxidants and colours. The majority of additives used in pet food are also used in human food and are included for a purpose either to deliver a nutritional benefit, to preserve ingredients or to create a certain texture. Vitamin A, vitamin E, preservatives BHA / BHT

Alternatively, a European pet food manufacturer may choose to provide a full ingredients list. Since labelling legislation varies from country to country, pet food manufacturers may be required to list all ingredients. For example, in the USA, a pet food manufacturer must list all ingredients used providing information about any process used to make the ingredients and the chemical names where appropriate (for example, pyridoxine hydrochloride (source of vitamin B6). A glossary of commonly used ingredients in the EU is provided in Table 2.

TABLE 2a: Glossary of common ingredients used to make wet pet food in Europe
Group Ingredient Description and Use
Meat and Animal Derivatives
Meat and animal derivatives Beef Usually fresh or frozen, can include muscle meat and organs such as heart, lung, liver, kidney, tongue, udder, provides a rich source of protein, amino acids, fats, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals.
Meat and animal derivatives Chicken Usually fresh or frozen, can include muscle meat and chicken parts such as heart, lung, liver, kidney, intestines, whole carcass, provides a highly digestible source of protein, amino acids, fats, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals.
Meat and animal derivatives Poultry Usually fresh or frozen, combination of chicken, turkey, duck or goose parts, can include muscle meat and parts such as heart, lung, liver, kidney, tongue, udder, intestines, whole carcass; provides a highly digestible source of protein, amino acids, fats, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals.
Meat and animal derivatives Pork Usually fresh or frozen, can include organs such as heart, lung, liver, kidney; provides a highly digestible source of protein, amino acids, fats, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals; provides a highly digestible source of protein, amino acids, fats, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals.
Meat and animal derivatives Lamb Usually fresh or frozen, can include muscle meat and organs such as heart, lung, liver, kidney; provides a highly digestible source of protein, amino acids, fats, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals.
Cereals and Grains
Cereals Wheat gluten Residual high protein fraction of wheat flour once starch has been removed
Cereals Wheat flour Cereal flour provides carbohydrate primarily as starch and fibre. In wet pet foods cereal flour can be used to help provide chunk texture.
Grains Rice - can be broken, whole grain or flour. Provide a highly digestible source of nutrients including carbohydrates, protein and dietary fibre
Gums and Gels
Additives Xanthan A polysaccharide thickening agent secreted by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris used to thicken gravies
Additives Carrageenan A polysaccharide gelling agent, sourced from seaweed, used to create gravies and jellies. Food grade carrageenan has been extensively reviewed and approved for use in foods, including pet food. Due to pet food labelling regulations, food grade carrageenan may appear on the package simply as carrageenan. This should not be confused with degraded carageenan which has been linked to intestinal inflammation and is not permitted in food for humans or pets.
Additives Cassia A vegetable gum obtained from seeds of the Cassia tree used to provide chunk structure and jelly texture
Additives Carob A vegetable gum extracted from the seeds of the carob tree, used as a thickening agent in gels and gravies
Additives Guar A vegetable gum extracted from the seeds of the guar bean, used as a thickener and to provide structure to chunks
Additives Arabic Also known as acacia gum, from the hardened sap of the Acacia tree, used as a thickening agent in gels and gravies
Vitamins
Additives Vitamin D3 A supplement that delivers the essential nutrient Vitamin D. Unlike humans, dogs and cats cannot produce their own Vitamin D from sunlight so adding Vitamin D into their food is essential for delivering complete and balanced nutrition.
Additives Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid) One of the B-group vitamins essential for normal function of the nervous system.
Additives Vitamin B7 (Biotin) One of the B-group vitamins essential for normal function of the nervous system and in skin and coat health.
Additives Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) One of the B-group vitamins essential for healthy metabolism. A deficiency can cause skin, nerve and blood disorders and therefore it is essential to be included in the food as part of complete and balanced nutrition.
Additives Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) One of the B-group vitamins essential for healthy skin and coat.
Additives Vitamin B3 (Niacin) One of the B-group vitamins essential for healthy skin and coat.
Additives Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) One of the B-group vitamins essential for normal function of the skin and coat health.
Additives Vitamin B12 One of the B-group vitamins essential for normal function of the nervous system and in skin and coat health.
Additives Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) One of the B-group vitamins essential for healthy nerve function.
Additives Vitamin E acetate Vitamin E is an essential nutrient that supports a healthy immune system and plays a role in maintaining healthy vision.
Amino Acids
Additives L-carnitine An amino acid that assists with fat metabolism
Additives Methionine An essential amino acid, often supplemented in pure form to ensure the level required for complete and balanced nutrition
Vegetable Derivatives
Vegetable derivatives Pea protein Peas are rich in proteins and some essential amino acids
Vegetable derivatives Sugar beet pulp A by-product from production of sugar, derived from sugar beet, provides a source of dietary fibre and support gut health. It is a good source of both moderately fermentable and non-fermentable fibre and can therefore improve general digestive function as well as benefiting stool quality.
Oils and Fats
Oils and fats Fish oil Provides omega 3 fatty acids, which have anti-inflammatory properties and are essential for healthy growth.
Oils and fats Sunflower oil Provides a source of dietary energy, essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins
Minerals
Minerals Mineral supplements added in refined form Required to ensure food is nutritionally complete and balanced. For example Zinc Sulphate, Manganese Sulphate, Magnesium Oxide, Copper Sulphate, Di-Calcium Phosphate. There are many approved versions of these minerals salts that can be used in pet food based on the formulation required.
Fruits and Vegetables
Fruits and vegetables A range of fruits or vegetables may be included in pet foods to add variety, examples include carrots, apples, peas Can be added in fresh, frozen or dried form. Must select vegetables appropriate for cats / dogs
Various Sugars
Sugars Caramel Caramel liquid used to provide natural source of brown colouring
Sugars Dextrose A natural sugar used in tiny amounts in pet food. During cooking dextrose reacts with proteins (Maillard reaction) and creates natural flavours and aromas.
Sugars Xylose A natural plant sugar used in tiny amounts in our petfood. During cooking xylose reacts with proteins (Maillard reaction) and creates natural flavours and aromas.
TABLE 2b: Glossary of common ingredients used to make dry pet food in Europe
Group Ingredient Description and Use
Meat and Animal Derivatives
Meat and animal derivatives Chicken Meal Chicken parts, may include muscle meat, carcass, necks, intestine, heads, feet. Parts are dried and fat removed creating a meal, provides a highly digestible source of protein, amino acids, fats, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals.
Meat and animal derivatives Poultry Meal / Poultry by-product meal Poultry parts from chicken, goose, duck or turkey; may include muscle meat, carcass, intestine, heads, feet; dried with fat removed creating a meal, provides a highly digestible source of protein, amino acids, fats, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals.
Meat and animal derivatives Pork meal / bone meal Can include muscle meat, organs such as heart, lung, liver, may contain bone, dried with much of the fat removed creating a meal. A highly digestible source of protein, amino acids, fats, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals.
Meat and animal derivatives Beef meal / bone meal Can include muscle meat, organs such as heart, lung, liver, may contain bone, dried with much of the fat removed creating a meal. A highly digestible source of protein, amino acids, fats, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals.
Meat and animal derivatives Hydrolysed feather meal Partially digested (hydrolysed) feathers from chicken, goose, duck or turkey; highly digestible source of protein and essential amino acids
Cereals and Grains
Cereals Maize / Corn Usually finely ground prior to use provides carbohydrate primarily as starch and fibre, starch is readily digested and provides energy, fibre contributes to digestive health.
Cereals Maize flour Milled maize, provides carbohydrate primarily as starch and fibre, starch is readily digested and provides energy, fibre contributes to digestive health. Nutritionally no different to whole maize but flour produces a finer texture
Cereals Wheat Usually finely ground, provides carbohydrate primarily as starch and fibre, starch is readily digested and provides energy, fibre contributes to digestive health
Cereals Wheat flour Milled as it is for human food, provides carbohydrate primarily as starch and fibre, starch is readily digested and provides energy, fibre contributes to digestive health.
Cereals Flax seed Seeds from the flax plant, also known as linseed; a rich source of omega 3 fatty acids
Grains Rice - can be broken or whole grain. Provide a highly digestible source of nutrients including carbohydrates, protein and dietary fibre
Grains Rice flour Flour produced from rice milling, provides a highly digestible source of nutrients including carbohydrates, protein and dietary fibre. Nutritionally similar to whole rice.
Vegetable protein extracts
Vegetable protein extracts Maize / corn gluten meal Extracted high protein fraction of maize / corn once starch has been removed, an excellent source of digestible protein and essential amino acids
Vegetable protein extracts Wheat gluten meal Extracted high protein fraction of wheat once starch has been removed, an excellent source of digestible protein and essential amino acids
Vegetable derivatives
Vegetable derivatives Sugar beet pulp A by-product from production of sugar, derived from sugar beet, provides a source of dietary fibre and support gut health. It is a good source of both moderately fermentable and non-fermentable fibre and can therefore improve general digestive function as well as benefiting stool quality.
Vegetable derivatives Kelp Dried seaweed powder; natural source of iodine
Vegetable derivatives Chicory extract An extract from the root of the chicory plant containing inulin which acts as a prebiotic promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut
Vegetable derivatives Yucca extract An extract from the Yucca plant that can help to reduce odiferous flatulence
Vegetable derivatives Cellulose A concentrated fibre source, included to support digestive health
Oils and Fats
Oils and fats Fish oil Provides omega 3 fatty acids, which can have anti-inflammatory properties and are essential for healthy growth.
Oils and fats Sun flower oil Provides a source of dietary energy, essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins
Oils and fats Coconut oil Provides a source of dietary energy, essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins
Oils and fats Chicken fat Fat from chicken usually obtained during preparation of chicken meal, provides a source of dietary energy, essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins
Oils and fats Poultry fat Source can be chicken, turkey, duck, goose or quail usually obtained during preparation of poultry meal, provides a source of dietary energy, essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins
Oils and fats Pork fat Usually obtained during preparation of pork meal, provides a source of dietary energy, essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins
Preservatives
Additives BHA Butylated hydroxyanisole; a synthetic antioxidant preservative used to help prevent food spoilage. Usually used alongside BHT
Additives BHT Butylated hydroxytoluene, a synthetic antioxidant preservative that helps prevent food spoilage. Usually used alongside BHA
Additives Propylene gallate A synthetic antioxidant preservative that helps prevent food spoilage
Additives Potassium sorbate Commonly used as a food preservative to inhibit mould and yeast formation, also used in human food such as yoghurt, cheese and wine.
Additives Vitamin C - ascorbate A natural antioxidant preservative, usually used alongside Vitamin E. Less effective than synthetic preservatives resulting in a shorter shelf-life
Additives Vitamin E - tocopherol A natural antioxidant preservative when sprayed on the outside of dry food, usually used alongside Vitamin C. Less effective than synthetic preservatives resulting in a shorter shelf-life
Additives Sodium hydroxide Used as an acidity regulator and in the production of caramel colour. Also used for human food in soft drinks and ice-cream
Additives L-Cysteine Hydrochloride A sulphur amino acid often used as flavour enhancer in pet food. Cysteine is also an essential amino acid that works in synergy with methionine for healthy skin and coat.
Amino Acids
Additives Methionine A sulphur amino acid (a building block of protein) which works in synergy with cysteine, important for skin and coat health particularly important for healthy hair growth. Maintenance of healthy skin and hair can use up to 30% of an adult dog's daily protein requirement.
Additives Taurine An essential amino acid required by cats, may also be beneficial for large breed dogs. In pet food manufacturing taurine is registered as a vitamin.
Vitamins
Additives Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) One of the B-group vitamins essential for healthy nerve function.
Additives Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) One of the B-group vitamins essential for normal function of the skin and coat health.
Additives Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) One of the B-group vitamins essential for healthy metabolism. A deficiency can cause skin, nerve and blood disorders and therefore it is essential to be included in the food as part of complete and balanced nutrition.
Additives Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid) One of the B-group vitamins essential for normal function of the nervous system.
Additives Vitamin B12 One of the B-group vitamins essential for normal function of the nervous system and in skin and coat health.
Additives Vitamin B3 (Niacin) One of the B-group vitamins essential for healthy skin and coat.
Additives Vitamin B7 (Biotin) One of the B-group vitamins essential for normal function of the nervous system and in skin and coat health.
Additives Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) One of the B-group vitamins essential for healthy skin and coat.
Additives Vitamin E acetate Vitamin E is an essential nutrient that supports a healthy immune system and plays a role in maintaining healthy vision.
Additives Vitamin A It is an essential vitamin required to maintain healthy vision and healthy skin.
Additives Vitamin D3 A supplement that delivers the essential nutrient Vitamin D. Unlike humans, dogs and cats cannot produce their own Vitamin D from sunlight so adding Vitamin D into their food is essential for delivering complete and balanced nutrition.
Additives Vitamin C Not essential in the diet of cats and dogs but may be included in the form of Vitamin C monophosphate for its antioxidant properties and to support the immune system
Minerals
Minerals Mineral supplements added refined form Required to ensure food is nutritionally complete and balanced. For example Zinc Sulphate, Manganese Sulphate, Magnesium Oxide, Copper Sulphate, Di-Calcium Phosphate, Calcium Iodate. There are many approved versions of these minerals salts that can be used in pet food based on the formulation required.
Fruits and Vegetables
Fruits and vegetables A range of fruits or vegetables may be included in pet foods to add variety. Examples include carrots, apples, peas Can be added in fresh, frozen or dried form. Must select vegetables appropriate for cats / dogs.



Endorsed by Mars Petcare, the world’s leading pet nutrition and health care business that strives to make A Better World for Pets every day. Mars logo.png


Error in widget FBRecommend: unable to write file /var/www/wikivet.net/extensions/Widgets/compiled_templates/wrt65e58d153bc449_49763065
Error in widget google+: unable to write file /var/www/wikivet.net/extensions/Widgets/compiled_templates/wrt65e58d1546f1a3_78310380
Error in widget TwitterTweet: unable to write file /var/www/wikivet.net/extensions/Widgets/compiled_templates/wrt65e58d154ec1c3_74092767
WikiVet® Introduction - Help WikiVet - Report a Problem