Dental Formula - Dog

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Image from Aspinall, The Complete Textbook of Veterinary Nursing, Elsevier Health Sciences, All rights reserved

Dogs are toothless at birth. The deciduous teeth are complete and functional within 2 months of birth in most breeds. Permanent teeth are complete and functional by the end of the 7th month.

Formula for deciduous teeth: 2 (i3/3 c1/1 p3/3)

Formula for permanent teeth: 2 (I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M2/3)


Dogs have six incisors in the maxilla and six in the mandible. Incisors have a single root.

Canine Teeth

The canine teeth are large, curved and laterally compressed. Their root is longer than their crown. They have a single root.


Premolars are irregular and closely-spaced. They are more complex and larger caudally. The first maxillary premolar has a single root, the second and third maxillary premolar have two roots and the fourth maxillary premolar (carnasial tooth) has three roots.


The molars are broader than the premolars. The large flat surface is used for grinding. The maxillary molars have three roots each.

Breed Differences

Eruption times differ between breeds so it is difficult to age dogs by their teeth.

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