Ectopic Mineralisation

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  • Also called heterotopic mineralisation (calcification)
  • Deposition of calcium phosphate, silicate and other in unusual locations
  • Contrast with ectopic ossification
  • Can be
    • Idiopathic
      • E.g. primary tumoral calcinosis (see below)
    • Metastatic
    • Dystrophic
      • E.g. due to repetitive trauma
  • Calcinosis cutis
    • Associated with hyperadrenocorticism, exposure to calcium chloride and wet concrete
    • Also present in some normal poodles
  • Calcinosis circumscripta (tumoral calcinosis)
    • Usually single lesion in skin of extremities of dogs
    • May occur in vertebral region and cause ataxia
    • In horses mainly 2-4 years old at lateral stifle, not attached to skin
    • May be the result of repetitive trauma (e.g. in supraspinatus tendon in hunting or working dogs)
    • Grossly:
      • Nodular masses about 1cm across or few cm more
      • May ulcerate
      • White, soft creamy or dry gritty on cutting
    • Microscopically:
      • Amorphous and granular mineralised areas
      • Surrounded by connective tissue
      • Granulomatous reaction is common
      • Chronic lesions may contain metaplastic cartilage or bone