Equine Internal Medicine Q&A 03

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A 10-year-old Tennessee Walking Horse mare, kept on pasture, was presented due to a rapid onset of abnormal mentation manifested as compulsive circling, repeated yawning and apparent blindness. Her sclera were markedly injected and her oral mucous membranes were toxic, with an underlying icterus. Hepato-encephalopathy was diagnosed on the basis of elevated serum liver enzyme activities, bilirubin concentration and bile acid concentration. Before performing a liver biopsy, a clotting profile was performed.

Question Answer Article
What does the prothrombin time (PT) test? Link to Article
What does the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test? Link to Article
Which clotting time, PT or APTT, would you expect to be prolonged first in a horse with hepatic failure, and why? Link to Article
Horses with liver failure are often endotoxaemic due to the failure of the hepatic macrophages to phagocytoze gut-derived endotoxin. Can you explain why this endotoxaemia might exacerbate factor VII consumption? Link to Article

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