Heart Failure, Left-Sided

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Left-sided congestive heart failure involves volume overload of the left atrium, pulmonary veins and pulmonary capillaries, manifesting as pulmonary oedema.

In both dogs and cats pulmonary oedema is a sign of left-sided congestive heart failure. In the cat pleural effusion may also be a side of left-sided congestive heart failure, whereas in the dog pleural effusion is always a sign of right-sided congestive heart failure. This species difference occurs because a proportion of the visceral pleural surface drains into the pulmonary veins, and this anatomic arrangement is more prominent in cats.


1. Degenerative mitral valve disease

2. Mitral endocarditis

2. Cardiomyopathies