Oral Cavity Disorders Non-dental - Donkey

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Non-dental disorders of the oral cavity include: fractures or occasionally tumours of the premaxilla, maxillary, mandibular or hyoid bones; disorders of the muscles of prehension (muscles used to grasp food) or mastication such as occur with facial nerve and trigeminal paralysis, respectively; and soft tissue tumours (including malignant carcinomas of the tongue). Pieces of wire or twigs can occasionally deeply lacerate or become trapped in the oral cavity, although the pharynx (throat) is the usual site for these foreign body entrapments. In addition, working donkeys in developing countries will often have mild to severe trauma caused to the mouth (especially the tongue) by worn or poorly made bits. All of these disorders require immediate veterinary attention.


  • Dacre, I., Dixon, P. and Gosden, L. (2008) Dental problems In Svendsen, E.D., Duncan, J. and Hadrill, D. (2008) The Professional Handbook of the Donkey, 4th edition, Whittet Books, Chapter 5

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