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  • Failure of mineralisation of osteoid / softening of the bones
  • Active resorption of bone replaced by excess osteoid on trabeculae, endosteum of cortices and Haversian canals
  • Decreased resistance to tension -> osteoid build-up at tendon insertions
  • In advanced disease
    • Bones break easily and become deformed
    • Tendons may separate from bones
  • Caused by prolonged phosphorus and Vitamin D deficiency
    • Vitamin D maintains normal plasma levels of calcium and phosphorus through acting on the intestines, bones and kidneys
  • In mature animals
  • Mainly grazing ruminants following gestation and lactation
    • Sunlight is important for production of vitamin D in the skin of ruminants
    • Vitamin d is also present in sun-dried hay
    • Mostly seen where there is long grass growing season with poor sunlight