The parasite is identifiable microscopically by its four anterior flagellae and well developed undulating membrane on one side.
T. gallinae has no posterior flagellum. Its body is divided by an axostyle.
The ellipsoid nucleus of the parasite is usually found in the posterior aspect of the organism.
T. gallinae requires sugars, starch and glycogen from host cells to survive and replicate.
Trichomonas gallinae is present worldwide in wild birds particularly the pigeon and other Columbids.
Transmission between pigeons occurs orally during feeding and mating behaviour.
Transmission to domestic chickens and turkeys is achieved through contaminated water troughs that have been visited by wild birds.
Prevention of disease relies upon prevention of wild birds’ access to domestic birds and their water supplies.
Animal Health & Production Compendium, Trichomonas gallinae datasheet, accessed 02/06/2011 @ http://www.cabi.org/ahpc/