A Tribute to Nick Short

It is with extreme sadness that we share the news that one of WikiVet’s founders, Nick Short, has passed away.

Nick was the driving force behind WikiVet and all that it stood for, and it is thanks to his vision, innovative approach and tireless enthusiasm and belief, that WikiVet is available as a free resource to veterinary professionals around the world today. Nick’s dedication and passion for veterinary education were truly inspirational and his very many friends, colleagues and students across the world have lost a true gem. He was an exceptional human being: gentle, good-natured, charming, generous and kind: he has left many legacies which will ensure that he will be remembered for many years.

Our thoughts are with his friends and family at this heartbreaking time. A book of remembrance has been set up for anyone that would like to leave a message of condolence for Nick and his family have asked that anyone who wishes to do so make a donation to BipolarUK, a charity that was close to Nick’s heart.


From WikiVet English
Jump to navigation Jump to search
WikiVet LIVE - at the Virtual Congress 2021 - WikiVet has partnered with The Webinar Vet and created a student stream at the Virtual Congress 2021

There is a limited number of FREE tickets for students – on a first come first serve basis.

Also known as: Branchiomyces infection — Gill Rot


Branchiomycosis is an acute infection of the gills that can cause high mortality and respiratory distress in many species of ornamental and freshwater fish such as the Koi, the eel, the bass and the perch.

It has been reported primarily in Europe and Taiwan but also in the southeast USA.

The two most commonly isolated species are Branchiomyces sanguinis and B. denigrans which have different host specificities and distributions.

The organism attaches to the gill surface and forms hyphae which penetrate the tissue and damage the blood supply to the area. Spores can be released and develop on the floor of the tank in favourable conditions (25-32°C, low oxygen, low pH).

Clinical Signs

Infected fish exhibit respiratory symptoms and a loss of equilibrium. The gill appears necrotic, eroded and pale.

Mortalities can occur in less than 48 hours and can reach 50% of the herd.


Gross evaluation of the gills reveals a patchy marbled appearance due to the haemorrhages and necrosis.

Wet mounts or histopathology of the lesions will enable a diagnosis to be made. Characteristic hyphae within the vessels of the gills or penetrating the gill tissue will be visible. These hyphae are light brown, slightly refractile, branching and non-septate.

Special stains such as the Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) can be used to identify the fungal elements.

B. denigrans appears to affect the entire gill whilst B. sanguinis is restricted to gill blood vessels.

Treatment and Control

There is no known treatment for the disease but some protocols may be beneficial with malachite green, formalin baths, copper sulphate and benzalkonium chloride dips, and oral methylene blue.

Factors that help control the condition include reducing overcrowding, levels of ammonia, algal blooms, levels of organic material, water temperature and improving hygiene.

Infected or dead fish should be promptly removed from the tank, pH in the tank can be increased by adding quick lime, and ponds can be drained and limed.

Fish should be adequately quarantined before being introduced to the tank.

Branchiomycosis Learning Resources
FlashcardsFlashcards logo.png
Test your knowledge using flashcard type questions
Ornamental Fish Q&A 09


Noga, E. (2010) Fish Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment Elsevier Health Sciences

Roberts, H. (2009) Fundamentals of Ornamental Fish Health John Wiley and Sons

Lewbart, G. (1998) Self-assessment colour review of Ornamental Fish Manson Publishing

WikiVet® Introduction - Help WikiVet - Report a Problem