Category:Muscles - Degenerative Pathology

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Muscles - Degenerative Pathology

Degenerate muscle fibres (Image sourced from Bristol Biomed Image Archive with permission)
There are different types of degeneration and they may, or may not, be reversible. Cloudy swelling, hydropic, vacuolar, granular and fatty change all occur, following many different types of insult and are usually segmental. If regeneration does not occur after formation of small vacuoles, necrosis follows.
Vacuolation -> floccular degeneration -> granular degeneration -> hyaline and Zenker’s degeneration Vacuolar degeneration: Occurs due to swelling of organelles or due to glycogen or fat accumulation. It may be caused by hypokalaemia, hyperkalaemia or necrosis. Histologically, the cells are swollen, the section is hypereosinophilic with lost cross striations.
Nutritional myopathy: White muscle disease
Exertional myopathies are caused by intensive and exhaustive activity of major muscle masses. Glycogen is used up -> local heat and lactic acid -> muscle degeneration. Equine Rhabdomyolysis and Porcine Stress Syndrome are described, other forms include capture myopathy, racing greyhounds, sheep chased by dogs.
Neuromuscular junction diseases: acquired Myasthenia Gravis and Botulism
Circulatory disturbances:congestion, ischaemia, trauma