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Mucogingival junction
Labiogingival Groove Histology - Copyright RVC 2008

Gingiva is the oral mucosa surrounding the neck of each tooth forming the gums.

Structure and Function of the Gingiva

Gingiva is mucosal tissue over alveolar bone. It has a stratified squamous epithelium, with some keratinisation. It resists friction of food during mastication by being tightly bound to the underlying bone. It recedes with age, exposing the cervical part of the tooth. It is usually salmon pink in healthy animals. A colour change indicates pathology.

Mucogingival junction

The mucogingival junction is the junction between the attached gingiva and the free alveolar mucosa

Vasculature and Innervation of the Gingiva

The gingiva is supplied by the superior and inferior alveolar arteries.

Innervation is from the trigeminal nerve (CN V).

Species Differences


Some breeds of dog have dark gums, e.g. chow chow.


The labiogingival groove is the junction between the labial border and gingival line on the distal/medial surface of the incisor teeth.

Gingiva Learning Resources
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Teeth and Gingiva Flashcards
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Histology tutorial on the oral cavity

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