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  • Found free-living in the soil and environment
  • Found in the gut
  • Usually opportunistic pathogens


  • Lactose fermentors
  • Possess large capsules causing colonies to be large and mucoid
  • Certain capsule types associated with metritis in mares
  • Antibiotic resistance

Clinical infections

  • Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in most cases of Klebsiella infection
  • Coliform mastitis in cows
  • Associated with wood products used for bedding for cattle - implicated as cause of mastitis
  • Endometritis, cervitis and mastitis in mares, causing infertility and abortion
  • Pneumonia in calves and foals
  • Urinary tract infections in dogs
  • Septicaemia and pneumonia in dogs
  • Wound infections
  • In osteomyelitis

NEVER a pathogen in the gut.