Nutrition Glossary

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Animal (or Fish) Derivatives or By-products

Animal derivatives are commonly used in a meal form (such as chicken meal, poultry by-product meal) where meat and animal derivatives are cooked, the fat removed and the remaining material dried to create a dry meal).

Aromatic Amino Acids

Group of amino acids characterized by side chains consisting of flat ring structures.

Ash

See Crude Ash

Atwater Factors

Estimated energy contribution from each gram of protein, fat and carbohydrate.

Avadin

Biotin-binding protein produced by birds and reptile and found in egg white.

Bacterial Dysbiosis

Imbalance of commensal bacteria on or in the body.

Bioavailability

The amount of an ingested nutrient that is absorbed and available for use by the body.

Carotenoids

Organic pigments found in plants, some of which can be metabolized to vitamin A when ingested by animals.

Chelator

A mineral that able to bind and prevent absorption of other minerals.

Chicken Meal

See Animal (or Fish) Derivatives or By-products

Cholecalciferol

Form of vitamin D (D3) synthesized by animals.

Cobalamin

Vitamin B12.

Coccidiostats

Coccidiostats are substances used as poultry feed additives to prevent coccidiosis.

Coenzyme

Small non-protein carbon-containing (i.e., organic) molecules that bind to an enzyme and are required for biological activity.

Cofactor

Small non-protein compound that binds to a protein to facilitate or increase the rate of biological activity; may be organic (i.e., coenzymes) or inorganic (i.e., minerals).

Complementary Pet Food

Complementary pet foods are designed to be only a part of the diet and they do not meet the known nutritional requirements when fed alone. They must be used in combination with additional food types to fulfill daily requirements.

Complete Pet Food

Pet foods providing all the nutrients in the amounts and proportions animals need are considered complete. Only complete pet foods are suitable for daily feeding without adding further food products except water.

Conditionally Essential Nutrients

Amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals that have limited de novo synthesis by animals and during specific periods of high nutrient demand (such as growth or gestation) may be required in the diet.

Crude Ash

Ash is the term used to define the inorganic material left after organic material has been burnt. It is important to recognise that this does not indicate ash was added to the food. It is also permitted to call “ash”, “incinerated residue” or “inorganic matter”.

Dibasic Amino Acids

Group of amino acids characterized by side chain consisting of a second basic group.

Digestibility

The ability of a protein, fat or carbohydrate to be broken down and absorbed by the body.

Disaccharides

Carbohydrate molecule comprised of two monosaccharide subunits.

Dry Matter Basis

Nutrient percentage of a feed when water has been removed.

Eicosanoids

Signaling molecules made from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acids by either lipoxygenase (LOX) or cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes.

Ergocalciferol

Form of vitamin D (D2) synthesized by plants and fungi.

Essential Nutrients

Amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals that are required for biological activity and function of a particular system, but are not synthesized (or synthesized in adequate amount) in the body and as such are required in the diet.

Glucogenic Amino Acids

Amino acids that can be converted to glucose via gluconeogenesis.

Glycaemic Response

The effect of a particular food or meal on elevating blood sugar levels.

High Density Lipoprotein

The smallest of the lipoprotein molecules with the lowest ratio of fat to protein. Used to transport lipid and cholesterol from the periphery to the liver and other end organs (such as adrenals and ovary/testes) for further metabolism.

Histomonostats

Histomonostats are substances used as poultry feed additives to prevent histomoniasis (black head).

Incinerated Residue

See Crude Ash

Inorganic Matter

See Crude Ash

Ketogenic Amino Acid

Amino acids that can be converted to acetyl-CoA for use in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

Low Density Lipoprotein

Intermediate in size of the lipoprotein molecules with a larger ratio of fat to protein compared to high density lipoproteins. Formed from removal of lipids and cholesterol from very low density lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation.

Macronutrient

Essential nutrients required in gram daily amounts in the diet.

Maillard Reaction

Cross linkage of amino acids (such as lysine, tryptophan, and proline) with sugar molecules that occurs with heat processing during food preparation. Also referred to as non-enzymatic browning.

Megaloblastic Anaemia

Presence of immature and dysfunctional red blood cells (megaloblasts) in peripheral circulation that has resulted from cobalamin and/or folate deficiency.

Modified Atwater Factors

Estimated energy contribution from each gram of protein, fat and carbohydrate in commercial dog and cat foods with an assumed decrease in bioavailability.

Monosaccharides

Simplest carbohydrate consisting of single sugar molecules.

Non-Essential Nutrients

Amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals that are have adequate de novo synthesis from other dietary constituents.

Osmolality

Measure of osmoles in a kilogram of solvent (osmol/kg).

Osmolarity

Measure of osmoles in a litre of a liquid solution (osmol/l).

Osteochondrosis

Orthopaedic disease in young, rapidly growing animals; multifactoral but often associated with excess energy and/or calcium intake resulting in a disruption of epiphyseal blood supply and defect in endochondral ossification.

Palatability

Characteristics of a food that make it appear pleasing and acceptable to an animal.

Particular Nutritional Purposes (PARNUT)

A Particular Nutritional Purpose is intended to meet the specific nutritional needs of animals whose process of assimilation, absorption or metabolism is, or could be, temporarily or irreversibly impaired and who can, therefore, benefit from a feed that is adapted to the specific needs generated by their condition.

Polysaccharides

A carbohydrate molecule comprised of multiple monosaccharide subunits.

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid

Long chain fatty acids with 2 or more double bonds in the carbon backbone.

Retinol

Alcohol form of vitamin A found in circulation.

Sarcopenia

Generalized loss of lean body (i.e., muscle) mass with maintenance of adipose tissue.

Technological Additives

Technological additives are additives that have an impact on the food texture and quality.

Thermic Energy of Food

Increase in metabolic rate following ingestion of a meal; influenced by macronutrient composition.

Tocopherol

General term for the family of vitamin E compounds.

Trace Nutrient

Essential nutrients required in milligram to microgram daily amounts in the diet.

Very Low Density Lipoprotein

Intermediate in size of the lipoprotein molecules with a larger ratio of fat to protein compared to low density lipoproteins. Synthesized in the liver and used to transport lipids and cholesterol to the peripheral tissues.

Zootechnical Additives

Zootechnical additives are additives that have an impact on animal health and functioning.



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