Porcine Adenovirus

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Also Known As: pADV 1-5 — pADV A-C

Introduction

Porcine adenovirus causes diarrhoea and gastrointestinal disease in piglets and is also often implicated in multifactorial respiratory diseases.

pADV-4 is thought to be the most pathogenic of the porcine adenoviruses.

Distribution

Worldwide

Transmission is faecal:oral

Signalment

pADV is only known to affect swine.

Clinical Signs

pADV is a low grade pathogen, associated with short duration mild clinical signs.

Diarrhoea, inappetance, dehydration and anorexia often present in various degrees of severity.

Dullness, depression, lethargy, listlessness and tremors may develop, often secondary to dehydration.

Reproductive disease may present as abortion and stillbirth pigs.

Respiratory disease, e.g. cough, dyspnoea, blue extremities etc. often develops when combined with other pathogens.

Subclinical and asymptomatic infections are common.

Diagnosis

Histologically, pADV causes formation of nuclear inclusion bodies in the intestinal cells[1].

Viral isolation can be performed in tissue cultures. Cells infected become rounded and enlarged and then detach from the vessel.

Viral particles can be seen via electron microscopy up to 6 days post infection.

Immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescent staining can demonstrate viral antigen.

Antibodies can be detected serologically with immunodiffusion, complement fixation, serum neutralisation and ELISA.

Treatment

None is usually necessary as disease is mild and/or transient.

Affected animals can become dehydrated and so symptomatic treatment with fluid replacement solutions is recommended.

Control

None is usually practised although a study has demonstrated beneficial use of a vaccine[2]


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References

  1. Buller, C. R., Moxley, R. A. (1988) Natural infection of porcine ileal dome M cells with rotavirus and enteric adenovirus. Vet Path, 25(6):516-517; 9
  2. Kadoi, K (1997) Beneficial use of inactivated porcine adenovirus vaccine and antibody response of young pigs. New Microbiol. 20:89-91


CABIlogo

This article was originally sourced from The Animal Health & Production Compendium (AHPC) published online by CABI during the OVAL Project.

The datasheet was accessed on 16 June 2011.









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