Swine Vesicular Disease

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Aslo know as: SVD

Introduction

This disease is caused by a Picornavirus, similar to that causing Foot and Mouth Disease. The virus only affects pigs and can cause large, sporadic outbreaks. Transient vesicular lesions occurring 2 days to 2 weeks post-infection can be easily confused with Foot and Mouth Disease. The virus was not known prior to 1966 when it appeared in Italy, (where it is still present in the South along with Bluetongue and ASFV). It spreads via ingestion of unboiled swill. The virus is now absent from UK since 1981 after a massive MAFF campaign in which many temporary DVO's with thermometers checked swill tanks.

Clinical Signs

Vesicles appear on the mouth area (5% of cases) and feet (most common site). The animal may appear generally off colour and separate away from the group. Appetite may be decreased and there will be a transient pyrexia.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is by the confirmation of SVD antigen by ELISA on vesicle fluid using same ELISA as FMDV .

Control

This is aNOTIFIABLE disease, therefore control measures are humane destruction with compensation for the farmer. There will be a restriction of all movements on or off the farm and farms within a certain radius of the outbreak must be investigated. All history must be examined in order to determine where the outbreak has originated. Carcasses must be buried in lime or incinerated .

References

Bridger, J (2007), Virology study book, Royal Veterinary College

Straw, B.E. and Taylor, D.J. (2006) Disease of Swine Wiley-Blackwell

Taylor, D.J. (2006) Pig Diseases (Eighth edition) St Edmunsdbury Press ltd




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