Cryptosporidium

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Cryptosporidium
Kingdom Protista
Phylum Myzozoa
Class Coccidea
Order Eucoccidiorida
Family Cryptosporidiidae
Genus Cryptosporidium
Species C. parvum and more

Overview

Cryptosporidium parvum - Courtesy of the Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine
Cryptosporidium Life Cycle - Alexander J. da Silva et al., WikiMedia Commons
Calf - nabrown RVC
Ruminant Cryptosporidium - Joaquim Castellà Veterinary Parasitology Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Cryptosporidium is the single genus in the Cryptosporidiidae family and contains at least 13 recognised species. These small protozoan parasites are able to infect a wide range of hosts including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish. These species are the causative agents of cryptosporidiosis, C. parvum is the most common species infecting mammals and man.

Recognition

Cryptosporidium species are extremely small in size, the oocysts being 4-5μm. They parasitise the epithelial cells lining the alimentary and respiratory tracts of the host. The developmental stages of the parasite are confined to the brush border area of the gut epithelium.

Life Cycle

Cryptosporidium mostly has a standard coccidial life cycle with a few exceptions. The oocyte does not contain sporocysts, instead the four sporozoites are free within the oocyst. Also the parasite does not invade the cells of the host, instead it develops in a membrane derived from the microvilli of the gut. The pre patent period of cryptosporidium is 1 week, after which sporulated oocysts are shed in the hosts faeces.

Pathogenesis

In young calves Crytosporidium infection causes outbreak of severe diarrhoea or scour. Contributes to undifferentiated neonatal calf diarrhoea which is a mixed viral enteritis in calves. Although it can cause severe illness in young animals, many older animals can be asymptomatic carriers of the disease.

Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic disease that can infect humans causing severe vomiting and diarrhoea. This is commonly seen in people who work with animals and do not practice sufficient hygiene and in AIDS and other immunocompromised patients.

Epidemiology

Cryptosporidum can be transferred by two different routes;

  • Faecal-oral infection

This involves ingestion of the sporulated oocysts, usually along with the ingestion of a small amount of fecal material. This can be due to grazing on common pasture as infected animals, meaning infections spread rapidly throughout young stock. In the case of zoonoses, this route is usually the result of poor hygiene after being in contact with potentially infected animals and their faeces. Washing and disinfecting hands after contact with young cattle can help prevent zoonotic infection.

  • Water-borne infection

Contamination of the water supply can infect large numbers of people using a common water source. The source of this contamination is often difficult to locate.


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Literature Search
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Cryptosporidium in dogs publications

Cryptosporidium in cats publications
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Cryptosporidium in cattle publications since 2000
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Full Text Articles
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Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: a brief review. Siddiki, A. M. A. M. Z.; Masuduzzaman, M.; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2009, 12, 2, pp 91-111, many ref.

Cryptosporidiosis an important zoonotic disease: a review article. Roy, S. S.; Pramanik, A. K.; Subhasis Batabyal; Samar Sarkar; Pradeep Das; Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Ahmedabad, India, Intas Polivet, 2006, 7, 2, pp 432-436, 26 ref.
Cryptosporidiosis: a review. Rashid, M.; Kotwal, S. K.; North-East Veterinarian, Guwahati, India, North-East Veterinarian, 2004, 4, 1, pp 25-27, 23 ref.
Cryptosporidiosis in dairy calves. Peregrine, A. S.; Leslie, K.; Trotz-Williams, L.; Ontario Veterinary Medical Association, Milton, Canada, Better medicine, better life. OVMA Conference Proceedings 2005, 2005, pp 185-189, 24 ref.





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