Proventriculus - Anatomy & Physiology
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The proventriculus is also referred to as the glandular stomach. It is connected by the isthmus to the gizzard.
Structure and Function
The proventriculus is a storage organ in fish and flesh eating birds. It is appropriate to a soft diet and secretes digestive enzymes. It contacts the left lobe of the liver ventrally and laterally. It is related dorso-caudally to the spleen. It is more cranial than the gizzard and lies to the left of the midline of the bird. It is spindle/fusiform shaped. The lumen diameter is similar to the oesophagus. There is no oesophageal sphincter.
The proventriculus has a columnar epithelium and the cells are basophilic. It contains mucous cells. There are papillae through which collecting ducts from glands run. Lamina propria run into the papillae. Hydrochloric acid and pepsin are produced in the glands in the submucosa. Single tubular glands are grouped into lobules with a common opening into a papilla. There is a serous membrane of mesothelial cells attached to the outer longitudinal layer of muscle. The proventriculus has 3 layers of lamina muscularis and no parietal cells.
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