Canine Parainfluenza - 2

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Also known as: Parainfluenza 5

Introduction

Canine Parainfluenza - 2 (aka Parainfluenza - 5), has been associated along with canine coronavirus in the aetiology of kennel cough (Infectious canine tracheitis), in dogs. The signs of kennel cough become much more severe if the bacteria Bordetella bronchiseptica is involved. The virus replicates in the upper respiratory tract, causing mild upper respiratory tract disease and rhinitis and is excreted from here. It is shed for a short time only and does not survive in the environment due to its fragile nature.

Signalment

Dogs of any age, breed or sex can be infected with this virus.

Clinical Signs

There are often no clinical signs. If mild upper respiratory signs arise, this will be rhinitis, so signs will include nasal discharge, sneezing and mild coughing. As mentioned above, coughing becomes worse if in combination with Bordetella.

Diagnosis

The virus can be diagnosed by immunocytochemistry for intracytoplasmic viral inclusions. This is rarely performed. Antibody levels can also be measured and these are often very high, especially in show dogs.

Treatment and Control

Treatment of this virus is on the same basis as for Kennel Cough.

A live attenuated vaccine may be incorporated in multivalent vaccines and this is the case in many yearly canine vaccines e.g. DHPPi. The vaccine will only reduce clinical signs rather than prevent infection, as immunity is very short lived.

References

Bridger, J and Russell, P (2007) Virology Study Guide, Royal Veterinary College

Tilley, L.P. and Smith, F.W.K.(2004)The 5-minute Veterinary Consult '(Third edition) Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins




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