Epistaxis - Horse
Epistaxis is the presence of blood at the external nares. It is not a disease alone and there are many underlying conditions that cause this clinical sign. There are many causes of epistaxis, which fall into various categories. Below is a comprehensive list of all causes of epistaxis.
- Nasal aspergillosis
- Ethmoidal haematoma
- Exercise Induced Pulmonary Haemorrhage
- Rupture of rectus capitus
- Mycotic infection of guttural pouches
- Nasolacrimal haemorrhage
- Nasal/ pharyngeal trauma
- Nasal/ pharyngeal foreign body
- Sinus neoplasia
- Sinus cyst
- Lower airway disease
- Pulmonary neoplasia.
- Head trauma, such as rupture of the longis captis muscle or the rectus capitus, or a basihyoid fracture can all cause epistaxis.
Depending on the disease, the clinical signs will involve epistaxis +/- other signs related to the condition.
Need to find the underlying cause, by various methods such as endoscopy, radiographs and a full physical exam at rest and at exercise. Other clinical signs such as the characteristics of nasal discharge and any asymmetry of the face are key clinical signs. History is important in diagnosis, such as if there is any history of trauma.
Treatment and Control
To treat epistaxis, one will need to find the underlying cause and treat this.
|This article has been peer reviewed but is awaiting expert review. If you would like to help with this, please see more information about expert reviewing.|
|WikiVet® Introduction - Help WikiVet - Report a Problem|