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  • 2-D Electrophoresis - a method of gel electrophoresis used to seperate molecules using two properties, on the one hand a difference in size and the other a difference in charge. Currently used as a precursor to proteomics


  • Aa - a blood group found in horses of clinical significance. Aa positive foals born to an Aa negative mare could suffer from equine neonatal isoerythrolysis
  • Absorption of antibodies - removal of cross-reacting antibodies through incubation of antibodies with their cross-reacting antigens followed by seperation of the formed antigen-antibody complexes. The removal of cross-reacting antibodies is performed using high molecular carriers, as this allows for easier removal of the formed antigen-antibody complexes
  • Acantholysis - loss of cohesion between cells of living epidermis, especially stratum spinosum
  • Acanthosis - hyperplasia of stratum spinosum
  • Acariasis - infection with any mite (also known as mange)
  • Adaptive immune response - synonymous with specific immune response, an immune response in which either specific sensitised T-cells or specific antibodies are developed
  • Adhesion molecules - proteins expressed on the cell surface that bind with coresponding cell surface proteins on other cells to cause cell adhesion, also known as cell adhesion molecules (CAM)
  • Adnexa - cutaneous appendages - hair, claws, glands
  • Adult - Stage in the life cycle which involves sexual multiplication
  • Adjuvants - components found in vaccines that improve the immune response to the therapeutical component
  • Afferent lymphatic duct - lymphatic ducts that supply secondary lymphatic organs
  • Affinity - biochemical term describing the bonding strength across a ligand-protein bond
  • Affinity chromatography - a chromatogrphic method based on the highly specific reactions of antigen and antibody. Mainly used for the extraction of monospecific (polyclonal) antibodies and the depletion of cross-reacting antibodies
  • Agar gel immunodiffusion - see Ouchterlony double immuno diffusion
  • Allotriophagia - desire to eat abnormal food stuffs e.g. pebbles or dirt
  • Alopecia - abscence of hair in an area where it is normally present
  • Anaemia - decreased levels of one or more of the following: red blood cell concentration, haematocrit or haemoglobin concentration.
  • Anagen - growth phase of hair cycle
  • Aldosterone - Adrenocortical hormone that promotes the retention of sodium and excretion of potassium in the duct
  • ADH - Anti diuretic hormone - A hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary that acts to increase the permeability of the collecting ducts to water.
  • Antidiuresis - Suppression of urine secretion by the kidney
  • Antiporter - A transport protein which is a member of the ATPase group. Transports two molecules in opposite directions.
  • Aquaporin - Family of membrane channel proteins which are very important in the movement of water from the nephron
  • Astrocytosis - Increased numbers of astrocytes (hyperplasia)
  • Astrogliosis (or gliosis) - Increased numbers of glial fibers
  • Atrial Natriuretic Peptide - This hormone is secreted from the atrial walls when blood volume is too high. It affects the renal handling of sodium and water.
  • Autoinfection - establishment of the products of sexual reproduction in the individual animal they were formed


  • Bacterium permeability increasing factor - a lipopolysaccharide binding protein produced by granulocytes resulting in the permeability of bacteria
  • Basophilic granulocytes - small population of leukocytes found in the blood that are readily stainable with basic dyes (also known as a basophil)
  • Beta-2-Microglobulin - a cellular glycoprotein that binds non-covalently to the alpha chain of the MHC-classI molecule to form a stable molecule complex
  • Bioassay - a scientific experiment/test using living materials (cells, laboratory animals)
  • Bionomics - influence of the environment on the development of the free-living life-cycle stages
  • Biotic Potential - ability of an organism to increase in numbers
  • Biotin - a molecules used in multiphase biochemical reactions due to its high affinity for avidin/streptavidin. Synonymous with vitamin H
  • Blocking/enhancing antibodies - antibodies that block tumour associated antigens blocking a CD8-cell immune response to these antigens. This was proven through the transfer of serum from animals that had a tumour to animals with the same type of tumour. This transfer enhanced the development of the recipients tumour
  • Blood-brain-barrier - prevents diffusion of many molecules to enter extracellular tissue of the central nervous system from the blood vessels. This occurs as astrocyte processes form a biochemical support for endothelial cells
  • Blot/to blot - method of transfering proteins from a gel onto a film
  • Bottle jaw - describes the jaw line as it is seen in cattle suffering from Johne's disease
  • Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) - lethal disease of bovines due to the lack of leukocytal integrin. As a result neutrophils do not adhere to the endothelium and are therefor not able to challenge bacterial caused inflammations
  • Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) - flu like bovine disease
  • Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) - causative pathogen of BVD and mucosal disease
  • Bridging antibody - an anti-species-Ig (antiglobulin)that froms a bridge between the first antibody and the peroxydase-anti-peroxydase complex during the peroxydase-anti-peroxydase method
  • Bromodeoxyuridin (BrdU) - synthetic nuceloside that is an analogue of thymidine, often wrongly transcribed into the DNA of dividing cells
  • Bursa of Fabricius - site of haematopoesis in birds and necessary for the maturation of B-cells. The bursa develops as a dorsal diverticulum of the proctadael region of the cloaca (lat. bursa fabricii)
  • B-cells - a subgroup of lymphocytes and precursor to antibody producing cells. Also known as B-lymphocyte
  • B-cell antigen receptor - receptor found on B-cells that identifies antigens usually composed of monoclonal IgM but occationally monoclonal IgD. Each B-cell has only one IgM antigen receptor and one IgD receptor of the same specificity


  • CD - cluster of differentiation (CD) antigen
  • CD1 - cell surface marker particuarly found on dendritic cells, belongs to the MHC-class-Ib-molecules
  • CD3 - cell surface marker demarcating the T-cell population, transmits signals detected by an antigen receptor
  • CD4 - cell surface receptor demarcating T-helper cells, Used as coreceptor in the identification of MHC-classII-associated antigen. It is also a receptor for the HI-virus.
  • CD14 - specific marker for mononuclear phagocytes. Part of the LPS receptor complex
  • CD19 - cell surface marker demarcating B-cells
  • CD20 - cell surface marker demarcating B-cells
  • CD21 - cell surface marker demarcating B-cells, belongs to the complement receptors and binds C3d. Otherwise known as CR2
  • CD28 - molecule expressed on T-cells. Only if a CD28 identifies a ligand (CD80, CD86) on an antigen presenting cell does it activate a T-cell that recognises its antigen
  • CD34 - cell surface marker demarcating stem cells and immature bone marrow cells *CD40 - cell surface marker present on antigen presenting cells, important in the T-B collaboration (mediates isotype-switch)
  • CD40-Ligand (L) - cell surface marker found on T-cells, important for T-B collaboration (e.g. induction of isotype-switch)
  • CD44 - cell surface marker, adhesion molecule, expressed on all cells of the immune system
  • CD45 - cell surface marker unique to all leucocytes, has phosphatase activity
  • CD45RA - related to CD45, demarcates antigen-naive lymphocytes
  • CD45RO - related to CD45, demarcates memory cells (lymphocytes that have come in contact with antigen)
  • Coeliac disease - A condition in which the small intestine fails to digest and absorb food, due to the permanent sensitivity of the intestinal lining to the protein gliadin (found in gluten). Histopathological changes are seen as villi atrophy. Medical name: gluten enteropathy
  • Comedo - plugged and dilated hair follicle
  • Commensalism - two species living together, but with no metabolic dependence
  • Crust - accumulation of solid exudate on skin surface, serocellular or haemorrhagic
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX) - An enzyme responsible for formation of important biological mediators called prostanoids through the convertion arachidonic acid. Cox isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2 are targets of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • Cytokines - Protein molecules released by cells when activated by antigen, involved with cell-to-cell comunications, acting as enhancing mediators for immune responses through interaction with specific cell-surface receptors on leukocytes
  • Cytotoxicity - Is the quality of being toxic to cells and resulting in cell death


  • DEA-1.1 - Canine blood group of clinical importance, as it has the potential for sensitising a transplant recipient
  • Defensins - Small cationic peptides part of the innate immune system and aid in the defense against fungal infections
  • Definitive host - host in which sexual multiplication of the parasite takes place
  • Degranulation - Cellular process of releasing molecules from secretory vesicles called granules from inside some cells, particularly observed in granulocytes and macrophages
  • Diapause - phase of dormancy, most often seen in insects
  • Diapedesis - Migration of cells through the endothelium of blood capillaries into the tissue spaces
  • Direct antibody detection - detection of antibodies using labeled anti-antibodies
  • Direct life-cycle - no intermediate host
  • Diuresis - An increased production of Urine
  • Diuretic - A drug which acts on the tubule to reduce the reabsorption of water and thus increases urine volume
  • Dot histogram - Statistical chart used for plotting continuous, quantitative, univariate data, showing frequency distribution against a range of parameters
  • Dot plot - Statistical chart used for plotting continuous, quantitative, univariate data, each result being displayed as a dot in a two dimentional chart


  • Ectoparasite - Parasite living on the surface of the host or embedded into host skin
  • Embyonated egg - egg containing a fully formed larva
  • Encephalo- - Of the Brain
  • Encephalitis - Inflammation of the brain
  • Endoparasite - parasite living within the body of the host
  • Epidemiolgy - factors governing the spread of infection and disease through host populations
  • Epidermal collarettes - peeling edge of epithelium surrounding an ulcer or erosion
  • Erosion - superficial ulcer involvng only epidermis, heals without scarring
  • Erythema - reddening of skin caused by congestion of capillaries
  • Erythropoietin - A hormone synthesised in the kidney that acts on stem cells of the bone marrow to stimulate erythrocyte (red blood cell) production.
  • Extracellular Fluid (ECF) - Comprises the blood plasma, the tissue fluid and the lymph


  • Facultatively parasitic - Can be parasitic, but not essential for life cycle completion
  • Formulation - process by which the physical and/or biologican characteristics of a pharmaceutical substance are modified by combining it with other substances
  • Forward scatter (FSC) - axial light beam in flow cytometry,of which the intensity is proportional to the partical size
  • Furunculosis - rupture of hair follicles with severe inflammation


  • Ganglioradiculitis - Inflammation of cranial and spinal ganglia and roots
  • Gemistocytes - Highly reactive astrocytes with abundant pink cytoplasm and distinct cell borders
  • Gemistocytic astrocytosis - Astrocytic hyperplasia in which gemistocytic forms predominate
  • Generation Time - time taken for one generation to complete its life cycle
  • Glomerular Filtration Barrier - This structure is responsible for the selective filtration of the blood in the glomerulus. It is made up of three layers.
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate - The volume of fluid filtered from the capillaries into the bowmans capsule every minute.
  • Glomerulus - A mass of anastomsing capillaries encased in the Bowman's capsule. The function of the glomerulus is to filter components of the blood before they pass to the tubules. The filtrate that is formed consists of water and low molecular weight constituents. The afferent arteriole supplies the glomerulus and the efferent arteriole drains it.
  • Growth factors - Various chemicals particularly polypeptides, that have a variety of important roles in the stimulation of new cell growth and cell maintenance


  • Heavy chains of antibodies - a structural unit of an antibody, each antibody consists of two heavy chains and two light chains. Heavy chains show structural variance depending on the isotype of the antibody
  • Horizontal Tranmission - transmission of parasite through a population
  • Hyperkeratosis - increased thickness of stratum spinosum
  • Hypobiosis - development of the parasite within the host caeses at a particular stage in the life cycle when conditions outside the host are unfavourable. Arrested or inhibited development are other common terms.


  • Immunosurveillance - describes the surveillance and destruction of developing tumor cells using tumor aassociated antigens through the adaptive immune system
  • Indirect life-cycle - intermediate host is involved in the life-cycle
  • Intermediate host - a host (other than the final host) in which development of the parasite occurs (usually an essential part of the life cycle)


  • JC-1 - A fluorescent dye used in the determination of mitochondrial membrane potential
  • Johne's disease (pronounced 'yo-knees') - Is a contagious, chronic and sometimes fatal infection that affects primarily the small intestine of ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It is sometimes known as paratuberculosis.



  • Larva - Immature stage in the life-cycle morphologically unlike the adult
  • Leptomeninges - Pia and arachnoid mater together
  • Leuko- - Of the white matter
  • Leukoencephalomalacia - Necrosis of the white matter of the brain
  • Leukomyelomalacia - Necrosis of the white matter in the spinal cord
  • Lichenification - thickeningof skin superficial layers with exaggerated crevices


  • Macula Densa - This structure found in the wall of the distal tubule is involved in the regulation of GFR via tubuloglomerular feedback
  • Macule - circumscribed change in skin colour < 1cm in diameter
  • Malacia - Necrosis
  • Medullary Ray - Middle part of a renal lobule. Its a straight tube which a nephron drains into and it connects to a collecting duct. They are only in the renal cortex and its name refers to where it is heading not where it is located.
  • Micturition - Is the normal process of the passive storage and active voiding of urine
  • Meningitis - Inflammation of the Meninges
  • Meningo - Of the Meninges
  • Meningoencephalitis - Inflammation of the brain and meninges
  • Mesencephalon - Midbrain
  • Metencephalon - Cerebellum and pons
  • Miliary - Literally 'resembling millet seeds', i.e. small and numerous
  • Myelencephalon - Medulla
  • Myelitis - Inflammation of the Spinal Cord
  • Myelo- - Of the spinal cord


  • Natriuresis - Abnormal amounts of sodium loss in the urine
  • Nephron - The functional unit of the kidney consisting of the renal corpuscule and renal tubule.
  • Nodule - Large, cicumscibed solid elevation usually extending into deeper layers
  • Nymph - immature stage in the life-cycle morphologically similar to the adult


  • O-antigen - part of a lipopolysaccharide, oligosaccharide, used to differentiate between different species of gram-negative bacteria
  • Obligatory parasite - Parasitic for part of its life cycle
  • Oligodentrocyte - a specialised glial cell of the central nervous system responsible for producing the myelin sheaths found around the neurons
  • Opportunistic pathogen - a commensal pathogen that does not cause disease unless the hosts immune sytem is compromised
  • Opsonization - the process by which a pathogen is marked for ingestion and destruction by a phagocyte usually involving IgG as well as complement factors
  • Osborndale Ivanhoe - name of the bull in which the BLAD mutation was first identified. He lived in the 1950's in the USA
  • Osmolality - Number of osmoles of solute per kilo of solvent
  • Osmolarity - Number of osmoles of solute per litre of solutions
  • Osmole - It is a non-SI unit which represents the number of moles of a chemical compound which
  • Osmosis - The passive transport of water across a semi-permeable membrane
  • Osteoclast - subpopulation of mononuclear phagocytes, whose main function is the resorbtion of calcified bone
  • Ouchterlony double immuno diffusion - A method of diffusing antigen and antibody in a gel to observe precipitation between the two, considered the gold standart for the detection of extractable nuclear antigens (ENAs). Also known as agar gel immunodiffusion
  • Oxidative burst - caused by the NAD(P)H oxydase, as a sequence of reactions that result in a series of reactive oxygen molecules


  • Pachymeninges - Dura mater
  • PAGE - see polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
  • Papule - solid elevation of skin, <1cm in diameter
  • Paracortex - portion of lymphnode immediately surrounding the cortex
  • Parakeratosis - abnormal cornification, keratinocytes retain their nuclei
  • Paraprotein - immunoglobulins produced as a result of paraproteinaemia, they are products of neoplastic antibody synthesising B-cells
  • Paraproteinaemia - cancer of certain types of B-cells resulting in heir production of inspecific monoclonal antibodes
  • Parasitaemia - presence of parasites circulating in the blood
  • Parasitism - two species living together, one at the expense of the other
  • Paratenic host - parasite enters host tissue but no development or growth takes place
  • Paratuberculosis - bovine disease folling the exposure to mycobacterium species. Synonymous with Johne's disease
  • Paronychia - inflammation of tissue fold around nail bed
  • Parthenogenesis - asexual reproduction where eggs produced by the female develop without fertilisation from the male
  • Parvovirosis - disease due to an infection with a parvovirus
  • Passive/adoptive immunity - transfer of parts of the immune system to a recipient, generally the transfer of antibodies
  • Patch - macule > 1cm in diameter
  • Pathogenicity - damage that may be inflicted by the infectious agent
  • Pediculosis - Infestation with lice
  • Plaque - flet topped swelling > 1cm in diameter
  • Platelet activating factor (PAF) - phospholipid derrived factor with inflammatory and platelet activating properties
  • Polio- - Of the grey matter
  • Polioencephalomalacia - Necrosis of the gray matter in the brain
  • Poliomyelomalacia - Necrosis of the gray matter in the spinal cord
  • Polyradiculoneuritis - Inflammation of multiple spinal or cranial nerve roots
  • Predilection site - parasites establish at a particular anatomical site ot in a particular tissue
  • Prepatent period - time from infection of the host to the appearance of eggs or larvae in faeces, blood or urine
  • Pressure Diuresis - Increasing blood pressure increases urinary output
  • Pressure Natriuresis - When blood pressure is increased sodium reabsorption decreases. This helps to restore blood pressure back to normal
  • Pruritis - intense and persistent itching
  • Pustule - small circumscribed elevation containing pus


  • Qa - blood group found in horses of clinical significance. Aa positive foals from an Aa negative mare can suffer from neonatal isoerythrolysis
  • Q-PCR - see real-time PCR
  • QRT-PCR - see real-time RT-PCR
  • Quantitative PCR - method that allows for quantifying the amplificated mRNA present. Real-time RT-PCR is a part of this
  • Quil A - purified saponin mixture from a Southamerican bark


  • Refugia - sites where parasites escape exposure to anitparasitic drugs that would prove lethal to the majority of individuals in a normal population of that species
  • Regolatory T-cells (Treg) - subpopulation of CD4-cells which supress T-cells
  • Renal Clearance - Is dependant on glomerular filtration rate and demonstrates the kidneys ability to remove a compound from the blood.
  • Renal Corpuscule - Consists of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, a single layer of epithelial cells (podocytes) resting on a basement membrane.
  • Renal Lobe - A multipyramidal kidney has several lobes each consisting of a renal pyramid and the piece of cortex above it. A unipyramidal kidney only has one of these
  • Renal Lobule - Groups of these make up a renal lobe. It is a collective name for a group of nephrons draining into a single medullary ray which in turn drains into a collecting duct
  • Renal Pyramid - Visible grossly this is the region of the medulla which appears triangular in cross section. They are actually cone shaped and the pointed part which faces towards the renal pelvis is termed the apex and the part against the cortex the base.
  • Renal Threshold - The concentration at which glucose begins to appear in the urine
  • Renin - A proteolytic enzyme synthesised in the kidney that plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
  • Reservoir host - infected definitive host which can act as a source of infection for other animals
  • Resilience - ability of an animal to withstand the effects of infection
  • Resistance - ability of an animal to prevent establishment and/or development of infection
  • Rose-Waaler test - Specific haemagglutination test for rheumatoid factor in the serum


  • Salt Hunger - Animals especially herbivores crave salt when they are sodium deficient
  • Sandwich ELISA - a version of ELISA testing allowing to identify the presence of minute quantities of antigen
  • Sarcoid - a commonly found type of skin cancer in the horse
  • Sarcolemma - cell membrane of the muscle fiber, containing a plasma membrane and an outer coat of polysaccharide conaining collagen fibrils; fuses with tendon fiber at the end of the muscle fiber
  • Sarcomere the portion of the myofibril that lies between two successive Z discs
  • Sarcoplasm fills spaces between myofibrils, containing potassium, magnesium, and phosphate
  • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum specialy organized reticula to control muscle contraction, site of calcium ion storage
  • Scale - fragments of stratum corneum
  • Scar - fibrous tissue area that replaced damaged dermis or subcutaneous tissue
  • Scintillation counter - instrument for measuring beta-radiation
  • Side scatter (SSC) - light beams perpendicular to the flow of the stream, its intensity is dependant on the optical heterogenicity of the particle, in short its granularity
  • Sodium/Potassium ATPase - A common ATPase antiporter in the basolateral membrane of the cells of the nephron which removes sodium from within the cell in exchange for potassium.
  • Splay - Between the renal threshold and T-Max the amount of glucose filtered and the amount of glucose in the urine is not linearly related. This is becuase some nephrons have a greater capacity for reabsorbtion than others and are not overcome as easily.
  • Symbiosis - two species living together, each dependent on the other
  • Symporter - A member of the family of transport proteins called ATPases. This protein is responsible for the transport of at least two molecules in the same direction


  • Takycardia - faster than normal pulse rate/heart beat
  • TAP - transporter of antigenic peptides, mediates the transport of fractions of antibodies into the endoplasmic reticulum
  • Taqman - instrument used for measuring real time PCR or real time RT-PCR
  • T-cell antigen receptor - receptor found on T-cells that identifies antigens. They consist of an alpha and a beta chain or of a gamma chain and delta chain. Each T-cell has only one type of T-cell receptor
  • Telencephalon - Cerebral hemispheres
  • Telogen - resting phase of hair cycle
  • T-Max - Renal - Is the point at which every nephron is running at full capacity of reabsorping glucose. After this point the glucose cocentration filtered and excreted increase linearly.
  • Temporary parasite - only visits the animal to feed
  • Tetramer - a compound consisting of four subunits of identical MHC molecules carrying four of the same porteins marked with fluorescent dye. Used for quantifying the percentage of antigen (in this case tetramer) specific cells
  • TGF beta receptor family - group of receptors all with similar structure to TGF beta receptor
  • Th1 cells - subgroup of T-cells that produce IFN-gamma but not IL-4
  • Th2 cells - subgroup of T-cells that produce IL-4 but not IFN-gamma
  • T-helper/helper-T cells - are CD4-T cells that aid in antibody production (Th2) and macrophage activation (Th1) through the release of cytokines
  • Thermphilic actinomycetes - a type of fungy commonly found in mouldy hay. The species commonly found is Micropolyspora faeni due to its particularly small spores that can travel deep into the airways
  • Thromboxane - derivative of arachidonic acid, aggregates thrombocytes
  • Thrombocytes - blood platelets
  • Thymus dependent areas - describes areas in lymphatic organs that are dominated by a collection of T-cells. T-cells have receptors that allow for the migration into these areas
  • TNF receptor family - group of receptors structurally similar to TNF receptor
  • Tolerogen - operational term: a substance that produces tolerance, ususally immunological
  • Toll-like receptors (TLR) - an example of PRR (pattern recognition receptors) they have a similar structure and result in a similar signal transduction cascade occuring
  • Transferrin - serum protein involved in iron transport
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) cytokine with antiinflammatory and immunosupressing properties
  • Transgenic animal - a foreign gene is coloned into an animal such that it is constitutively expressed, usually in a mouse
  • Transgenic knock out animal - the inactivation of a functioning own gene through the insertion of a foreign gene into the functioning gene, this is usually done in mice
  • Transplacental - Scientific term for passing through the placenta crossing the physical and biological barriers
  • Transport host - loose association in which the parasite is carried by the host
  • Trimester - a period of three months
  • Tuberculin reaction - a type IV hypersensitivity reaction, characterised through the presence of lymphocytes and Monocytes. This cellular reaction is often used as evidence for the presence of a solid cellular immunity. In this instance tuberculin is a model antigen as it causes this reaction in animals vacinated against tuberculosis (i.e. sensitised animals). Tubercilin is an antibody that is dereived from the tuberculosis causing mycobacterium
  • Tubule - renal - A minute tube, lined by a single layer of epithelial cells, that extends in a convoluted manner from the Bowman's capsule to the collecting ducts. The primary function of the tubule is to secrete and reabsorb water, inorganic ions and other molecules from the glomerular filtrate. The tubule consists of 4 main areas: the Proximal Tubule, the Loop Of Henle, the Distal Tubule and the Collecting Duct.
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) - cytokine with proinflammatory, procoagulative, resistence developing and necrosis inducing properties, derrived from mononuclear phagocytes and activated T-cells
  • Tumor suppresor gene - genes that produce products that dampen tumor development
  • Tumortransformation - the mutation of healthy cells into necrotic cells
  • TUNEL method - method of measuring the level of apoptosis in tissue (histological and cytological examinations). Stands for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling
  • Tyrosin kinase receptor family - family of receptors with a transmembrane region and its own kinase (phospholysing enzymatic activity) on the cytoplasmic side of the receptor


  • Ulcer - break in epidermis with exposed underlying dermis
  • Urticaria - vascular reaction in dermis, consists of transient wheals
  • Uveitis - Inflammation of any part of the uveal tract of the eye, either the irirs, ciliary body, or choroid.


  • Vaccinating - exposure to an antigen triggering a primary immune responce, with the aim of the individual developing a secondary immune response at subsequent exposures to the pathogen, therefore becoming immune to the pathogenic stimmulus
  • Vasa Recta - The blood vessels supplying the loop of henle
  • Vasoactive compounds - collective term for substances that have effect on the vasculisation resulting in inflammation accompanied by redness, swelling and itching
  • Vector - imprecise term that refers mostly to invertebrates that spread pathogenic organisms
  • Veiled cells - describes cells found in the afferent lymphatic ducts that carry antigens from the periphery to the corresponding draining lymph node
  • Verticle Tranmsission - direct transfer of the parasite from one host generation to the next
  • Vesicle - blister <1cm in diameter


  • Western blot analysis - A technique for the detection of specific proteins, after seperation by electrophoresis, the proteins are bound to radioactively labelled antibodies and identified by X-ray
  • Wheal - Sharply demarcated raised lesion caused by dermal oedema
  • White pulp - Areas of the spongy interior of the spleen consiting of concentrations of diffuse and nodular lymphoid tissue associated with secondary lymphoid function. It includes Spleen folicles (B-cells) and PALs (T-cells). Also known as spleen nodule and Malipighian corpuscle.


  • Xenotransplantation - transplantation of organs from one species into another species



  • Z disc passes in the transverse plane across the myofibril to attach successive myofibrils together, enabling muscle cells to act as a syncitium and giving skeletal muscle its classic striated appearance
  • Zoonosis - An infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans