Lizard Blood Values

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Introduction

Baseline haematology and biochemistry values of 'normals' must be established per patient and per laboratory. It is very useful to establish normals for individual patients at the time of regular health checks before an animal is presented in ill health. Values may vary depending on season, breeding condition and diet. The following values have been taken from various sources and reflect the laboratory methods as well as the individual species. Caution is advised when using these values for the interpretation of your own patients' blood results.


Normal haematology & plasma biochemistry values in the green iguana (Iguana iguana)

Ten wild caught iguanas were blood sampled as part of a health assessment prior to introduction to an existing group. The iguanas were manually restrained by holding the forelimbs laterally against their chest and the hindlimbs against the tail. Blood was collected from the ventral tail vein and placed in lithium heparin. A fresh blood smear was made at the time of collection. Urea, creatinine and LDH were considered poor diagnostic parameters.


Haematology Values Biochemistry Values
Total RBC count (x 10^12/l) 1.0-1.9 Total protein (g/l) 50-78
PCV (l/l) 0.25-0.38 Albumin (g/l) 21-28
Hb (g/dl) 6.0-10.0 Globulin (g/l) 25-43
MCV (fl) 165-305 Uric acid (mmol/l) 70-140
MCH (pg) 48-78 ALP (iu/l) 50-290
MCHC (g/dl) 20-38 ALT (iu/l) 5-68
Total WBC count (x 10^9/l) 3-10 AST (iu/l) 5-52
Heterophils (x 10^9/l) 0.35-5.2 GGT (iu/l) 0-3
Azurophils (x 10^9/l) 0.0-1.7 Cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.7-8.6
Lymphocytes (x 10^9/l) 0.5-5.5 Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.6-7.8
Eosinophils (x 10^9/l) 0.0-0.3 Glucose (mmol/l) 9.4-16.0
Monocytes (x 10^9/l) 0.0-0.1 Calcium (mmol/l) 2.2-3.5
Basophils (x 10^9/l) 0.0-0.5 Phosphorus (mmol/l) 1.5-3.0


References

  • Divers, S. (1996). Normal haematology & plasma biochemistry values in the green iguana. British Veterinary Zoological Society, Summer newsletter 1996:5-6.

Haematology and biochemistry of selected lizards (American units)

Prehensile-tailed skink (Corucia sp.) Green iguana (Iguana iguana) Iguanid lizard (Dipsosaurus dorsalis)
Haematology
PCV (%) 35 (24-60) 45-52
RBC(10^12/l) 1.5 (0.8-1.4) 3.5-5.8
Hb (g/dl) 9.6 (7.4-11.6) 7.1
MCV (fl) 263 (152-600) 78-149
MCH (pg) 69 (42-111) 12-20
MCHC (g/dl) 28 (17-56) 14-16
WBC (x 10^9/l) 12.4 (3.9-22.4) 9 (4.3-15.0)
Heterophils (%) 37 (16-58) 5-55
Azurophils (%) 22 (8-42)
Lymphocytes (%) 22 (2-40) 35-55
Eosinophils (%) 4(0-18) 2
Monocytes (%) 0.6 (0-6) <4
Basophils (%) 15 (4-26) rare
Biochemistry
ALT (iu/l) 35-90 13 (3-38)
AP (iu/l) 30-95 14 (4-30)
AST (iu/l) 19 (<4-76) 20-65 179 (34-400)
Bilirubin total (mg/dl) 0.4-1.0 0.2 (0.1-0.5)
BUN (mg/dl) 6-15 2 (1-5)
Calcium (mg/dl) 13 (11-21) 9-13 11 (8-30)
Chloride (mEq/l) 124 (123-129) 102-125 120 (12-155)
Cholesterol (mg/dl) 144 (11-252) 210 (110-250) 243 (100-399)
Creatine kinase (iu/l) 210 (27-940) 90-300 4500 (700-14.240)
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.1-0.7 0.5 (0.2-1.8)
GGT (iu/l)
Glucose (mg/dl) 100 (70-122) 197-280 355 (255-575)
LDH (iu/l) 150-400 789 (145-2915)
Magnesium (mEq/l) 0.9
Phosphorus (mg/dl) 3.7 (2.8-6.7) 3.5-6.0 5.5 (2.8-10.0)
Potassium (mEq/l) 3.6 (1.4-5.0) 3.6-5.2 2.6 (0.4-7.0)
Protein total (g/dl) 6.5 (5-8) 2.8-5.0 3.8 (2.4-5.4)
Albumin (g/dl) 1.0-1.6 2.3 (1.6-3.0)
Globulin (g/l) 1.5 (0.8-2.4)
a:g ratio 1.7 (1.0-2.3)
Sodium (mEq/l) 158 (145-167) 140-158 164 (137-245)
Thyroxine (ìg/dl) 1.5-4.6
Uric acid (mg/dl) 1.6 (<0.3-3.1) 2.8-6.0 5.6 (2.4-13.3)



References

  • Wright, K.M. & Skeba, S. (1992). Hematology and plasma chemistries of captive prehensile-tailed skinks (Corucia zebrata). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 23:429-432.=
  • Carpenter, J.W., Mashima, T.Y. & Rupiper, D.J. (1996). Exotic Animal Formulary. Greystone Publications, Kansas. Pp. 74-76.
  • Kopplin, R.P., Tarr, R.S. & Iverson, C.N.M. (1983). Serum profile of the iguanid lizard (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 14:30-32.

Haematology and biochemistry of chameleons

  • 38 samples from 35 individuals – 8 institutions
  • ISIS values
  • International units
Haematology Values Biochemistry Values
RBC (x10^12) 0.84-1.93 Total protein (g/l) 42 - 76
WBC (x10^9) 7.68-19.99 Albumin (g/l) 13 - 33
PCV (l/l) 0.19-0.40 Urea (mmol/l) 1.1-5.3
Haemaglobin (g/l) 3.6-11.6 ALK (iu/l) 10-207
MCV (fl) 145 - 353 Cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.09-6.53
MCH (pg) 42.4 - 88.2 Uric acid (umol/l) 180 - 325
MCHC (g/dl) 271-342 Calcium (mmol/l) 2.48-3.43
Heterophils (x 10^9) 2.0-7.23 AST (iu/l) 15 - 247
Eosinophils (x 10^9) 0.12-1.67 GOT (iu/l) 0-1
Lymphocytes (x 10^9) 0.92-8.34 LDH (iu/l) 42-392
Monocytes (x 10^9) 0.12 0.57 Sodium (mmol/l) 136 - 169
Basophils (x 10^9) 0.00-26.3 Potassium (mmol/l) 3.1-5.1
Azurophils (x 10^9) 0.40-3.23 Chloride (mmol/l) 114 - 130
Thrombocytes Phosphorus (mmol/l) 1.35-2.91


Bosc monitor blood values

Anecdotal information - International units

CBC Values Biochemistry Values Electrolytes Values
PCV 20-35% uric acid 90-300 sodium 145-190
WBC 3-10 Ca 2.1-3.2 K 3.2-4.3
PO 1.1-2.5 Cl 142-155
AST 20-140
TP 55-85
Glu 3.5-9.6
Amylase 150-700
Chol 2.5-7.5
Trig 1.0-4.5


Haematology and biochemistry of the inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

Haematology for 21 inland bearded dragons.

Unit Mean SD Range
WBC 10^3/ul 12.053 4.084 6.736-19.946
Heterophils  % 27 8 17-43
10^3/ul 3.325 1.634 1.619-7.339
Lymphocytes  % 59 7 47-69
10^3/ul 7.053 2.410 4.012-12.033
Monocytes  % 1 1 0-4
10^3/ul 0.105 0.163 0-0.499
Basophils  % 9 4 2-18
10^3/ul 1.125 0.729 0.205-3.191
Azurophils  % 4 2 0-9
10^3/ul 0.414 0.288 0-1.085
Hematocrit  % 27 7 17-50
Total solids g/dl 6.6 1.2 4.5-9.5
g/l 66 12 45-95


Plasma chemistry values of inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

  • Sample size for the WBC and differential, TS, PCV glucose, uric acid, calcium, and phosphorus was 21; for cholesterol, sodium, chloride, potassium, BUN, ALT and AST, sample size was 20.
  • All values of ALT were < 3 iu/L, with the exception of one value of 5. NA = not applicable.


Unit Mean SD Range
Glucose mmol/I 11.7 2.2 7.72-16.2
mg/dl 210 40 139-291
BUN mmol/l 0.7 0.2 <0.7-1.4
mg/dl 1 0.4 <1-2
Uric acid mmol/l 310 150 95-678
mg/dl 5.2 2.6 1.6-11.4
Calcium mmol/l 2.95 0.95 2.2-6.8
mg/dl 11.8 3.8 8.6-27.2
Phosphorus mmol/l 1.9 0.61 1.1-3.2
mg/dl 5.9 1.9 3.5-9.8
Cholesterol mmol/l 17.4 5.92 8.07-31.7
mg/dl 671 229 312-1224
ALT iu/l < 3 NA < 3-5
AST iu/l 13 9 4-40
Sodium mmol/l or mEq/l 153 15 141-190
Chloride mmol/l or mEq/l 123 13 80-140
Potassium mmol/l or mEq/l 3.6 1.7 1.0-6.5
Calcium:Phosphorus 2.2 0.8 0.9-3.8



References

  • Eliman, M.M. (1997). Hematology and plasma chemistry of the inland bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps. In Bulletin of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians 7(4).=

Prehensile-tailed skink (Corucia zebrata)

ISIS values, International units

Haematology

WBC RBC count Hb PCV MCV MCH MCHC
Mean +/- s.d. 13.68 - 6.333 1.50 - 0.26 89 - 19 0.333 - 0.073 249.0 - 104.0 70.1 - 18.7 279 - 71
No. of samples (individuals) 37 - 33 26 - 24 27 - 24 38 - 35 26 - 24 17 - 15 25 - 23
Range: min - max 3.930 - 31.60 0.84 - 1.93 36 - 116 0.190 - 0.600 152.0 - 600.0 42.4 - 110.7



Differential

Heterophils Lymphocytes Monocytes Eosinophils Basophils Azurophils Thrombocytes
Mean +/- s.d. 4.711 - 2.053 4.792 - 3.817 0.307 - 0.246 0.878 - 0.877 1.720 - 1.919 1.861 - 0.831
No. of samples (individuals) 37 - 33 37 - 33 13 - 13 22 - 20 34 - 31 13 - 13
Range: min - max 1.010 - 12.00 0.332 - 16.50 0.079 - 0.948 0.125 - 3.160 0.104 0.400 - 3.232

Chemistry

Calcium Phosphorus Sodium Potassium Chloride Iron
Mean +/- s.d. 3.03 - 0.4 1.23 - 0.32 161 - 8 4.1 - 1.0 124 - 6
No. of samples (individuals) 35 - 32 31 - 29 35 - 31 35 - 31 25 - 23
Range: min - max 2.48 - 4.15 0.78 - 2.13 138 - 178 2.6 - 7.3 114 - 140


Magnesium HCO3 BUN Creatinine Uric Acid Glucose
Mean +/- s.d. 22.3 - 7.2 .0000 - .0000 27 - 18 0.124 - 0.071 6.215 - 1.485
No. of samples (individuals) 4 - 2 10 - 8 19 - 17 34 - 31 35 - 31
Range: min - max 13.1 - 30.7 .0000 - .3570 0 - 62 0.018 - 0.325 3.850 - 10.95


Cholesterol Triglycerides CK LDH ALP ALT
Mean +/- s.d. 3.094 - 1.534 .9020 - .9020 226 - 212 149 - 122 126 - 32 7 - 3
No. of samples (individuals) 36 - 32 12 - 10 25 - 21 9 - 9 14 - 14 15 - 14
Range: min - max .7800 - 6.552 .3080 - 3.509 27 - 940 42 - 392 90 - 207 2 - 12


AST GGT Tot Bilirubin D Bilirubin Ind Bilirubin Fibrinogen
Mean +/- s.d. 18 - 18 0 - 0 2 -2
No. of samples (individuals) 30 - 27 8 - 8 18 - 16
Range: min - max 2 - 76 0 - 1 0 - 7


Electrophoresis

Osmolarity Globulin Albumin Total protein
Mean +/- s.d. 360 - 17 35 - 9 22 - 5 60 - 10
No. of samples (individuals) 4 - 2 14 -14 14 - 14 19 - 17
Range: min - max 335 - 373 19 - 54 13 - 33 42 - 76



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